Data Structures

About images
About images

Applications of Data Structures

  • Some other applications of the arrays are: Arrangement of leader-board of a game can be done simply through arrays to store the score and arrange them in descending order to clearly make out the rank of each player in the game. A simple question Paper is an array of numbered questions with each of them assigned to some marks. 2D arrays, commonly known as, matrix, are used in image processing. It is also used in speech processing, in which each speech signal is an array.
  • Some other applications of the linked list are: Images are linked with each other. So, an image viewer software uses a linked list to view the previous and the next images using the previous and next buttons. Web pages can be accessed using the previous and the next URL links which are linked using linked list. The music players also use the same technique to switch between music. To keep the track of turns in a multi player game, a circular linked list is used.
  • Some Applications of a stack are: Converting infix to postfix expressions. Undo operation is also carried out through stacks. Syntaxes in languages are parsed using stacks. It is used in many virtual machines like JVM.
  • Some applications of a queue are: Operating System uses queue for job scheduling. To handle congestion in networking queue can be used. Data packets in communication are arranged in queue format.
  • Some applications of a graph are: Facebook’s Graph API uses the structure of Graphs. Google’s Knowledge Graph also has to do something with Graph. Dijkstra algorithm or the shortest path first algorithm also uses graph structure to finding the smallest path between the nodes of the graph. GPS navigation system also uses shortest path APIs.
  • Some applications of the trees are: XML Parser uses tree algorithms. Decision-based algorithm is used in machine learning which works upon the algorithm of tree. Databases also uses tree data structures for indexing. Domain Name Server(DNS) also uses tree structures.
  • Some applications of a hashtable are: Data stored in databases is generally of the key-value format which is done through hash tables. Every time we type something to be searched in google chrome or other browsers, it generates the desired output based on the principle of hashing. Message Digest, a function of cryptography also uses hashing for creating output in such a manner that reaching to the original input from that generated output is almost next to impossible. In our computers we have various files stored in it, each file has two very crucial information that is, filename and file path, in order to make a connection between the filename to its corresponding file path hash tables are used.
  • Some applications of heaps are: In heapsort Algorithm, which is an algorithm for sorting elements in either min heap(the key of the parent is less than or equal to those of its children) or max heap(the key of the parent is greater than or equal to those of its children), sorting is done with the creation of heaps. Heaps are used to implement a priority queue where priority is based on the order of heap created. Systems concerned with security and embedded system such as Linux Kernel uses Heap Sort because of the O( n log(n) ). If we are stuck in finding the Kthsmallest (or largest) value of a number then heaps can solve the problem in an easy and fast manner.
  • Some applications of a matrix are: In geology, matrices are used for making seismic surveys. Used for plotting graphs, statistics and also to do scientific studies and research in almost different fields. Matrices are also used in representing the real-world data’s like the population of people, infant mortality rate, etc. They are best representation methods for plotting surveys.

Course Syllabus Outline

  • Unit I – Array (Single and multiple dimension) Application using array - Storage structures for arrays – Sparse matrices
  • Unit II – Stacks and Queues Stacks and Queues: Representations and applications. Recursion, Tower of Hanoi, Double Ended Queue, Priority Queue, Infix to Postfix, postfix to infix, expression evaluation.
  • Unit III – Linked Lists Linked Lists – Linked stacks and queues – Operations on polynomials – Doubly linked lists – Circularly linked lists – Dynamic storage management – Garbage collection and compaction.
  • Unit IV – Trees Binary Trees – Binary search trees – Tree traversal – Expression manipulation – Symbol table construction – Height balanced trees – Minimum spanning trees, B-Trees, B+ Trees, Applications.
  • Unit V – Graphs Graphs – Representation of graphs – BFS, DFS – Topological sort – Shortest path problems. String representation and manipulations – Pattern matching, Applications.
  • Unit VI – Sorting and Searching Sorting Techniques – Selection, Bubble, Insertion, Merge, Heap, Quick, Radix sort and Address calculation. Linear search – Binary search – Hash table methods.

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